AIRO: an Ontology for expressing AI Risks

language en
Latest version:
https://w3id.org/AIRO
Version: 0.2
Author:
Delaram Golpayegani, ADAPT Centre, Trinity College Dublin
Contributors:
Harshvardhan J. Pandit, ADAPT Centre, Trinity College Dublin
Dave Lewis, ADAPT Centre, Trinity College Dublin
Publisher:
ADAPT Centre, Trinity College Dublin
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License:
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
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Publication:
AIRO: an Ontology for Representing AI Risks based on the Proposed EU AI Act and ISO Risk Management Standards
Feedback:
GitHub DelaramGlp/AIRO (pull requests, new issue, open issues)

AIRO Ontology Specification

Abstract

The growing number of incidents caused by (mis)using Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a matter of concern for governments, organisations, and the public. To control the harmful impacts of AI, multiple efforts are being taken all around the world from guidelines promoting trustworthy development and use, to standards for managing risks and regulatory frameworks. Amongst these efforts, the first-ever AI regulation proposed by the European Commission, known as the AI Act, is prominent as it takes a risk-oriented approach towards regulating development and use of AI within systems. The risk-based approach taken by the proposed AI Act means it regulates development and use of AI systems according to the severity of harmful risk they impose. AI Act lays down obligations on identification, management and documentation of risks. Conforming to these obligations requires maintaining and querying information associated with AI risk management.

AIRO (AI Risk Ontology) is an ontology for expressing risk of AI systems based on the requirements of the proposed AI Act and ISO 31000 series of standards. AIRO assists stakeholders in determining "high-risk" AI systems, maintaining and documenting risk information, performing impact assessments, and achieving conformity with AI regulations.

Introduction back to ToC

The AI Act aims to avoid the harmful impacts of AI on critical areas such as health, safety, and fundamental rights by setting down obligations which are proportionate to the type and severity of risk posed by the system. It distinguishes specific areas and the application of AI within them that constitutes "high-risk" and has additional obligations (Art. 6) that require providers of high-risk AI systems to identify and document risks associated with AI systems at all stages of development and deployment (Art. 9).

Existing risk management practises consist of maintaining, querying, and sharing information associated with risks for compliance checking, demonstrating accountability, and building trust. Maintaining information about risks for AI systems is a complex task given the rapid pace with which the field progresses, as well as the complexities involved in its lifecycle and data governance processes where several entities are involved and need to share information for risk assessments. In turn, investigations based on this information are difficult to perform which makes their auditing and assessment of compliance a challenge for organisations and authorities. To address some of these issues, the AI Act relies on creation of standards that alleviate some of the compliance related obligations and tasks (Art. 40).

We propose an ontology-based approach regarding the information required to be maintained and used for the AI Act’s compliance and conformance by utilising open data specifications for documenting risks and performing AI risk assessment activities. Such data specifications utilise interoperable machine-readable formats to enable automation in information management, querying, and verification for self-assessment and thirdparty conformity assessments. Additionally, they enable automated tools for supporting AI risk management that can both import and export information meant to be shared with stakeholders - such as AI users, providers, and authorities.

AIRO is an ontology for expressing risk of harm associated with AI systems based on the proposed EU AI Act and the key standards in the ISO 31000 series including 31000:2018 Risk management – Guidelines and ISO 31073:2022 Risk management — Vocabulary. AIRO assists with expressing risk of AI systems as per the requirements of the AI Act, in a machine-readable, formal, and interoperable manner through use of semantic web technologies.

AIRO Requirements back to ToC

The purpose of AIRO is to express AI risks to enable organisations (i) determine whether their AI systems are "high-risk" as per Annex III of the AI Act and (ii) generate the technical documentation required for conformity to the AI Act.

Describing High-Risk AI Systems

We analysed the requirements of the AI Act, in particular the list of high-risk systems in Annex III, and identified the specific concepts whose combinations determine whether the AI system is considered high-risk.These are listed in Table 1 in the form of: scompetency questions, concepts, and relation with AI system.



Table 1: Questions necessary to determine whether an AI system is high-risk according to Annex III
ID Competency Question Concept Relation
CQ1 What techniques are utilised in the system? AITechnique usesTechnique
CQ2 What domain is the system intended to be used in? Domain isAppliedWithinDomain
CQ3 What is the intended purpose of the system? Purpose hasPurpose
CQ4 What is the application of the system? Application hasApplication
CQ5 Who is the intended user of the system? AIUser isUsedBy
CQ6 Who is the subject of the system? AISubject affects
CQ7 In which environment is the system used? EnvironmentOfUse isUsedInEnvironment

Technical Documentation

To conform to the AI Act, high-risk AI systems need to fulfil the requirements laid out in Title III, Chapter 2. One of the key obligations is implementing a risk management system to continuously identify, evaluate, and mitigate risks throughout the system’s entire lifecycle (Art. 9). To demonstrate conformity to authorities, the providers of highrisk systems need to create a technical documentation (Art. 11) containing information listed in Annex IV.

To assist with this process, we identified the information required to be provided as the technical documentation for an AI system as per AI Act Annex IV, with relevant concepts and relations as presented in Table 2.

Table 2: Information needed to be featured in the AI Act technical documentation
Annex IV Clause Required information Domain Relation Range
1(a) System’s intended purpose AISystem hasPurpose Purpose
1(a) System’s developers AISystem isDevelopedBy AIDeveloper
1(a) System's date AISystem dcterms:date
1(a) System's version AISystem hasVersion Version
1(c) Versions of relevant software or firmware System/ Component hasVersion Version
1(d) Forms in which AI system is placed on the market or put into service AISystem isUsedInFormOf AISystemForm
1(e) Hardware on which the AI system run AISystem hasExecutionEnvironment AIHardware
1(f) Internal layout of the product which the system is part of AISystem hasDocumentation Blueprint
1(g) Instruction of use for the user AISystem hasDocumentation InstructionOfUse
1(g) Installation instructions AISystem hasDocumentation InstallationInstruction
2(a) third party tools used AISystem hasComponent Tool
2(a) Pre-trained system used AISystem hasComponent Pre-trainedSystem
2(b) Design specifications of the system AISystem hasDocumentation SystemDesignSpecification
2(c) The system architecture AISystem hasDocumenatation SystemArchitecture
2(d) Data requirements Data hasDocumentation Datasheet
2(e) Human oversight measures HumanOversightMeasure modifiesEvent Event
2(g) Testing data AISystem hasComponent TestingData
2(g) Validation data AISystem hasComponent ValidationData
2(g) Characteristics of data Data hasDocumentation Datasheet
2(g) Metrics used to measure accuracy/ robustness/ cybersecurity Accuracy/ Robustness/ CybersecurityMertic isUsedToMeasure AISystemAccuracy/ Robustness/ Cybersecurity
2(g) Discriminatory impacts of the system Consequence hasImpact Impact
2(g) Test log AISystem hasDocumentation TestLog
2(g) Test report AISystem hasDocumentation TestReport
3 Expected level of accuracy AISystem hasExpectedAccuray AISystemAccuracy
3 Foreseeable unintended outcomes of the risk Risk hasConsequence Consequence
3 Sources of the risk RiskSource isRiskSourceFor Risk
3 Human oversight measures HumanOversightMeasure modifiesEvent Event
3 Technical measures TechnicalMeasure modifiesEvent Event
3 Specification of input data InputData hasDocumentation Datasheet
4 Risks associated with the AI system AISystem hasRisk Risk
4 Sources of the risk RiskSource isRiskSourceFor Risk
4 Consequences of the risk Risk hasConsequence Consequence
4 Harmful impacts of the risk Consequence hasImpact Impact
4 Probability of risk source/ risk/ consequence /impact RiskSource/ Risk/ Consequence/ Impact hasLikelihood Likelihood
4 Severity of consequence/ impact Consequence/ Impact hasSeverity Severity
4 Impacted stakeholders Impact hasImpactOnAISubject AISubject
4 Impacted area Impact hasImpactOnArea AreaOfImpact
4 Risk management measures applied Control modifiesEvent Event
6 Standard applied AISystem usesStandard Standard
6 Harmonised standards applied AISystem usesStandard HarmonisedStandard
6 Technical specifications applied AISystem usesTechnicalSpecification TechnicalSpecification
7 EU declaration of conformity AISystem hasDocumentation EUDeclarationOfConformity
8 Post-market monitoring system AISystem hasPostmarketMonitoring System PostmarketMonitoringSystem
8 Description of the post-market system that evaluates the performance PostmarketMonitoringSystem dcterms:description

AIRO: Overview back to ToC

AIRO’s core concepts and relations are illustrated in Figure 1. The upper half shows the main concepts required for describing an AI System (green boxes), and the lower half represents key concepts for expressing Risk (yellow boxes). The relation hasRisk links these two halves by connecting risk to either an AI system or a component of the system.

AIRO concepts
Figure 1: AIRO core concepts and relations

Namespace declarations

Table 3: Namespaces used in the document
airo<https://w3id.org/AIRO>
owl<http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl>
rdf<http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns>
terms<http://purl.org/dc/terms>
xml<http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace>
xsd<http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema>
rdfs<http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema>
prov<http://www.w3.org/ns/prov>
dc<http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1>

Classes and Properties

Core AI Vocabulary

The AIRO concepts and relations required for expressing AI systems and their characteristics as per the AI Act are represeneted in this section.
Classes
Properties

Core Risk Vocabulary

The main concepts and relations in AIRO for describing risk are identified from ISO 31000 series of standards.
Classes
Object Properties

AI Techniques

AI Outputs

AI Purposes

Stakeholders

Indicators

Risk Sources

Consequences

Impacts

Impacted Areas

Controls

Documents & Standards

AI Components

WebVOWL Visualisation

AIRO Usage and Application back to ToC

Use-case 1: Uber's Real-time ID Check System

This use-case describes an instance where Uber used a facial recognition identification system, known as the Real Time ID (RTID), to ensure that the driver's account is not used by anyone other than the registered Uber driver. If the system failed to recognise a person for two consecutive times, the driver's contract would be terminated and their driver and vehicle licenses would be revoked. Multiple incidents where the system failed to verify drivers of BAME (Black, Asian, Minority Ethnic) background proved that the use of the facial recognition system involved risks of inaccuracy which could have lead to unfair dismissal of drivers.
Uber's real-time ID check system
Figure 2: AIRO-based representation of Uber's real-time ID check use-case

Use-case 2: VioGén Domestic Violence System

This use-case describes the VioGén Domestic Violence System that was used by the Spanish law enforcement agencies to assess the likelihood of a victim of gender violence to be assaulted by the same perpetrator again, which is used for determining the victim's eligibility for police protection. VioGén system is considered a high-risk AI system as it is employed by law enforcement authorities as means for predicting the risk of gender violence recidivism (Annex III, 6-a) that in turn is used for determining access to public services, i.e. police protection (Annex III, 5-a).

Its use of statistical models to predict the risk faced by a victim raise questions regarding the accuracy of its predictions since these would be highly dependent on the quality of data fed into the models. The input data was generated based on a questionnaire answered by victims who filed a report. The ambiguity of questions and timing of questionnaire could have lead to inaccurate or biased predictions, and if the score was not modified by police officers - the victim would not required protection. To control this risk, police officers were granted the power to increase the risk score calculated by the system. However,in most cases the officers trusted the system's scoring despite warning signs, which led to ``automation bias'' i.e. over-reliance on the system's outcomes.


viogen domestic violence system
Figure3: AIRO-based representation of VioGén use-case

Identification of High-risk AI Systems

To assist with determination of whether the system would be considered a high-risk AI system under the AI Act, the concepts presented in Table 1 need to be retrieved for the use-cases and compared against the specific criteria described in Annex III.

For demonstration, we first utilise a SPARQL query, depicted below, to list the concepts necessary to determine whether the system is high-risk.


PREFIX airo: <https://w3id.org/AIRO#>
SELECT ?system ?technique ?domain ?purpose ?application ?user ?subject ?environment
WHERE {
      ?system a airo:AISystem ;
              airo:usesTechnique ?technique ;
              airo:isUsedWithinDomain ?domain ;
              airo:hasPurpose ?purpose ;
              airo:hasApplication ?application ;
              airo:isUsedBy ?user ;
              airo:affects ?subject ;
              airo:isUsedInEnvironment ?environment . }


Information retrieved from the use-cases to determine whether they are high-risk AI using the SPARQL query is shown in Table 4.

Table 4: Information retrieved from the use-cases
AIRO concept Uber's Real-time ID Check VioGén system
AISystem uber's_real_time_id_check viogén_system
AITechnique machine_learning statistical_model
Purpose biometric_identification_of_drivers_to_decide_on _contract_termination determining_access_to_police_protection & assessing_risk_of_gender_violence_recidivism
Domain employment law_enforcement & public_service
AIApplication facial_recognition profiling
AIUser uber_driver the_spanish_ministry_of_the_interior
AISubject uber_driver_of_bame_background victim_of_gender_violence
EnvironmentOfUse work_relate_relations investigation_of_criminal_offences
High-Risk? Yes (Annex III. 1-a & 4-b) Yes (Annex III. 6-a & 5-a)

To show automation in determination of whether an AI system is high-risk, and to show the usefulness of our analysis and AIRO’s concepts, we created SHACL shapes representing two of the high-risk conditions defined in Annex III, and then applied them over the use-cases. we modelled these SHACL shapes to check where AI systems are not high-risk, that is - they fail when a condition such as purpose being BiometricIdentification is met.

  
@prefix dash: <http://datashapes.org/dash#> .
@prefix sh: <http://www.w3.org/ns/shacl#> .
@prefix airo: <https://w3id.org/AIRO#> .
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
:AnnexIII-1
    a sh:NodeShape ;
    sh:targetClass airo:AISystem ;
    sh:message "High-Risk AI System as per AI Act Annex III-1"@en ;
    sh:description "Biometric Identification of Natural Persons"@en ;
    sh:not [
        a sh:PropertyShape ;
        sh:path airo:hasPurpose ;
        sh:class airo:BiometricIdentification; ] .
:AnnexIII-6a
    a sh:NodeShape ;
    sh:targetClass airo:AISystem ;
    sh:message "High-Risk AI System as per AI Act Annex III-6a"@en ;
    sh:description "AI systems intended to be used by law enforcement..."
        "... or the risk for potential victims of criminal offences;"@en ;
    sh:not [ sh:and (
            sh:property [
                a sh:PropertyShape ;
                sh:path airo:isUsedWithinDomain ;
                sh:hasValue airo:law_enforcement ;
            ]
            sh:property [
                a sh:PropertyShape ;
                sh:path airo:hasPurpose ;
                # omitted (sh:or .. airo:AssessingRiskOfReoffending) here for brevity
                sh:class airo:AssessingRiskOfReoffending ; ] ) ] .
  

Generating Technical Documentation

To demonstrate how AIRO assists with producing technical documentation as required by Art. 11 and described in Annex IV of the AI Act, we utilised SPARQL queries to retrieve the information regarding the two use-cases.

Table 5: Information retrieved from AIRO-based representations of use-cases for generating technical documentation
Anx.IV. Required Information Concept Uber's Real-time ID Check VioGén system
1(a). System’s intended purpose Purpose biometric_identification_of_drivers _to_decide_on_contract_termination assessing_risk_of_gender_violence _recidivism
determining_access_to_police _protection
1(a). System’s developers AIDeveloper uber the_spanish_secretary_of_state_for _security
1(d). Forms in which AI system is placed on the market or put into service AISystemForm service software
2(e) & 3. Human oversight measures HumanOversightControl manual_review manual_modification_of_risk_score
2(g). Discriminatory impacts of the system Impact
ImpactedArea
unfair_dismissal_of_bame_drivers
non-discrimination
lower_risk_scores_assigned_to _women_without_children
non-discrimination
3. Expected level of accuracy AISystemAccuracy high high
3. Foreseeable unintended outcomes of the risk
4. Consequences of the risk
Consequence failed_to_identify_some_bame_ drivers (1) victim_at_risk_remains _unprotected
(2) risk_score_is_not_manually _modified_when_necessary
3 & 4. Sources of the risk RiskSource bias_in_algorithm_training (1) poor_quality_of_input_data
(2) N/A
4. Risks associated with the AI system Risk inaccuracy_in_identifying_bame _drivers (1) inaccurate_predictions
(2) automation_bias
4. Harmful impacts of the risk Impact unfair_dismissal_of_bame_drivers (1&2) victim_being_assaulted
4. Severity of impact Severity N/A critical
4. Impacted stakeholders AISubject uber_driver_of_bame_background victim_of_gender_violence
4. Impacted area AreaOfImpact non-discrimination safety_of_victim
4. Risk management measures applied Control manual_review (1) manual_modification_of_risk _score
(2) N/A

Cross Reference back to ToC

This section provides details regarding AIRO classes, properties, and individuals.

Classes

Job Applicantc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#JobApplicant

has super-classes
Applicant c

Accuracyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Accuracy

has super-classes
AI System Indicator c
has sub-classes
AI System Accuracy c, Data Accuracy c

Admission Test Assessmentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AdmissionTestAssessment

Refers to the assessment of participants in tests required for admission to educational institutions.
has super-classes
Assessment For Education c

Adversarial Attackc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AdversarialAttack

inputs designed to cause the model to make a mistake
has super-classes
Attack c

Advertising Vacanciesc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AdvertisingVacancies

has super-classes
Assessment For Recruitment c

AI Applicationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AIApplication

Refers to the application and usage of the AI system.
has sub-classes
Facial Recognition c, Remote Biometric Identification c
is in range of
has application op

AI Componentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AIComponent

A functional element that constructs an AI system. [Source: ISO 22989]
has sub-classes
AI Hardware c, Data c, Model c, Tool c
is in range of
has component op

AI Developerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AIDeveloper

A natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body that develops an AI system or that has an AI system developed with a view to placing it on the market or putting it into service under its own name or trademark, whether for payment or free of charge. [Source: AI Act]
has super-classes
Stakeholder c
is in range of
is developed by op

AI Hardwarec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AIHardware

Hardware on which the AI system run.
has super-classes
AI Component c

AI Lifecycle Phasec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AILifecyclePhase

A Phase of AI lifecycle which indicates evolution of the system from conception through retirement.
is in range of
has lifecycle phase op
has members
development ni, inception ni, post market ni, testing ni, training ni, validation ni

AI Subjectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AISubject

An AI subject is an organization or entity that is impacted by an AI system, service or product.
has super-classes
Stakeholder c
has sub-classes
Group c, Natural Person c
is in range of
affects op, has impact on AI subject op

AI Systemc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AISystem

Represents a software that is developed with one or more of the AI Approaches and can, for a given set of human-defined objectives, generate outputs such as content, predictions, recommendations, or decisions influencing the environments they interact with. [Source: AI Act, Art 3(1)]
has super-classes
System c
is in domain of
Indicates the intended purpose of an AI system. op, affects op, has AI indicator op, has application op, has component op, has documentation op, has execution environment op, has expected accuracy op, has lifecycle phase op, has mode of operation op, has post-market monitoring system op, has stakeholder op, has version op, has vulnerability op, is applied within domain op, is developed by op, is used by op, is used in environment op, is used in form of op, produces output op, uses standard op, uses technical specification op, uses technique op
is in range of
is expected accuracy of op, is extent of use of op, is performance of op, is used for testing op, is used for training op, is used for validating op

AI System Accuracyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AISystemAccuracy

Indicates the degree to which a product or system provides the correct results with the needed degree of precision. [ISO 22989, 3.4.4]
has super-classes
Accuracy c
is in domain of
is expected accuracy of op
is in range of
has expected accuracy op

AI System Formc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AISystemForm

refers to the forms in which AI system is placed on the market or put into service.
is in range of
is used in form of op
has members
product ni, saftey component ni, service ni, software ni

AI System Indicatorc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AISystemIndicator

Represents indicators for expressing properties of AI systems.
has super-classes
Indicator c
has sub-classes
Accuracy c, Expected Lifetime c, Extent Of Use c, Performance c, Reversibility c, Robustness c, Security c
is in range of
has AI indicator op

AI Techniquec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AITechnique

Represents the main approaches and techniques used for development of AI systems.
has sub-classes
Knowledge Based Approach c, Logic Based Approach c, Machine Learning Approach c, Statistical Approach c
is in range of
uses technique op

AI Userc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AIUser

Any natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body using an AI system under its authority. [Source: AI Act]
has super-classes
Stakeholder c
has sub-classes
Firefighter c, Judicial Authority c, Law Enforcement Authority c, Medical Aid c, Public Authority c, Representative Of Public Authority c
is in range of
is used by op

Algorithm-Related Risk Sourcec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Alogorithm-RelatedRiskSource

has super-classes
Risk Source c

Applicantc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Applicant

A person who has made an application.
has super-classes
Natural Person c
has sub-classes
A person who has made an application for employment. c, Asylum Seeker c, Citizenship Applicant c, Residence Permit Applicant c, Visa Applicant c

Application Examinationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ApplicationExamination

has super-classes
Making Decision c
has sub-classes
Asylum Application Examination c, Migration Related Complaints Examination c, Residence Permits Application Examination c, Visa Application Examination c

Application Filteringc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ApplicationFiltering

Filtering applications for recruitment or selection of natural persons.
has super-classes
Assessment For Recruitment c

Application Screeningc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ApplicationScreening

has super-classes
Assessment For Recruitment c

Applying The Law to Factsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ApplyingLawToFacts

Refers to the application of the law to a concrete set of facts.
has super-classes
Knowledge Reasoning c

Approvalc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Approval

Represents approval or refusual of a request, excutation of process, etc. to prevent or mitigate a risk.
has super-classes
Manual Control c

Area Of Impactc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AreaOfImpact

Represents areas that AI might have impact on.
has sub-classes
Fundamental Right c, Health And Safety c
is in range of
has impact on area op

Assessing Health Riskc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AssessingHealthRisk

has super-classes
Individual Risk Assessment c

Assessing Past Criminal Behaviourc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AssessingPastCriminalBehaviour

has super-classes
Assessment c

Assessing Risk For Potential Victims Of Criminal Offencesc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AssessingRiskForPotentialVictimsOfCriminalOffences

has super-classes
Individual Risk Assessment c

Assessing Risk Of Irregular Immigrationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AssessingRiskOfIrregularImmigration

has super-classes
Individual Risk Assessment c

Assessing Risk Of Offendingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AssessingRiskOfOffending

has super-classes
Individual Risk Assessment c

Assessing Risk Of Reoffendingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AssessingRiskOfReoffending

has super-classes
Individual Risk Assessment c

Assessing Security Riskc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AssessingSecurityRisk

has super-classes
Individual Risk Assessment c

Assessing Tests Required For Admissionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AssessingTestsRequiredForAdmission

has super-classes
Student Assessment c

Assessment For Educationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AssessmentForEducation

Refers to assessment for education and vocational training purposes.
has super-classes
Assessment c
has sub-classes
Admission Test Assessment c, Assigning People To Educational Institutions c, Determining Access To Education c, Student Assessment c

Assessment For Recruitmentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AssessmentForRecuitment

Refers to assessment related to employment, workers management and access to self-employment.
has super-classes
Assessment c
has sub-classes
Advertising Vacancies c, Application Filtering c, Application Screening c, Employee Evaluation c, Interview Evaluation c, Recuritment Test Evaluation c

Assessment Of Employeec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AssessmentOfEmployee

has super-classes
Assessment c
has sub-classes
Evaluating Behaviour Of Employee c, Evaluating Performance Of Employee c, Making Promotion Decision c, Making Termination Decision c

Assigning People To Educational Institutionsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AssigningPeopleToEducationalInstitutions

has super-classes
Assessment For Education c

Asylum Application Examinationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AsylumApplicationExamination

has super-classes
Application Examination c

Asylum Seekerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AsylumSeeker

A person who has applied for asylum.
has super-classes
Applicant c

Attackc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Attack

has super-classes
Risk Source c
has sub-classes
Adversarial Attack c, Cyberattack c, Data Poisoning c, Model Evasion c, Model Inversion c

Automated Controlc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#AutomatedControl

Represents controls that do not involve human intervention.
has super-classes
Control c
is disjoint with
Manual Control c

Bayesian Estimationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#BayesianEstimation

has super-classes
Statistical Approach c

Biasc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Bias

Systematic difference in treatment of certain objects, people, or groups in comparison to others [ISO 22989]
has super-classes
Bias Consequence c

Bias Consequencec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#BiasConsequence

Represents consequences related to bias.
has super-classes
Consequence c
has sub-classes
Bias c

Bias Detectionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#BiasDetection

Represens controls that are applied to detect bias in datasets, models, algorithms, ect.
has super-classes
Detection Control c

Biased Testing Data Setc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#BiasedTestingDataSet

has super-classes
Testing Data Risk Source c

Biased Training Data Setc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#BiasedTrainingDataSet

has super-classes
Training Data Risk Source c

Biased Validation Data Setc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#BiasedValidationDataSet

has super-classes
Validation Data Risk Source c

Biometric Categorisationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#BiomerticCategorisation

has super-classes
Making Decision c

Biometric Identificationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#BiometricIdnetification

Identifaction of natural persons using biometric data.
has super-classes
Making Decision c

Blueprintc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Blueprint

has super-classes
Document c

Childc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Child

An individual human being who is below the age of 18 (according to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child)
has super-classes
Natural Person c

Citizenship Applicantc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#citizenshipApplicant

A person who has applied for citizenship.
has super-classes
Applicant c

Competent Public Authorityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#CompetentPublicAuthority

has super-classes
Public Authority c

Consequencec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Consequence

Outcome of an event affecting objectives. [Source: ISO 31000, 3.6]
has super-classes
Event c
has sub-classes
Bias Consequence c, Impact c, Performance Consequence c
is in domain of
has impact op
is in range of
has consequence op

Contentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Content

Content generated using an AI system.
has super-classes
Output c

Controlc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Control

Represents the measure that maintains and/or modifies risk. [Source: ISO 31000, 3.8]
has sub-classes
Automated Control c, Detection Control c, Elimination Control c, Manual Control c, Mitigation Control c, Operational Control c, Organisational Control c, Semi Automated Control c, Technical Control c
is in domain of
detects event op, eliminates event op, is followed by control op, mitigates event op, modifies event op
is in range of
is followed by control op, is part of control op

Creditworthiness Assessmentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#CreditworthinessAssessment

Refers to the evaluation the creditworthiness of natural persons or establishing their credit score.
has super-classes
Assessment c

Crime Analyticsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#CrimeAnalytics

Refers to crime analytics regarding natural persons, allowing law enforcement authorities to search complex related and unrelated large data sets available in different data sources or in different data formats in order to identify unknown patterns or discover hidden relationships in the data.
has super-classes
Pattern Recognition c
has sub-classes
Discovering Hidden Relationships Related To Crime c, Identifying Unkown Patterns Of Crime c

Cyberattackc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Cyberattack

has super-classes
Attack c

Datac back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Data

Reinterpretable representation of information in a formalized manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing [Source: ISO/IEC 2382:2015, 2121272]
has super-classes
AI Component c
has sub-classes
Input Data c, Testing Data c, Training Data c, Validation Data c

Data Accuracyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#DataAccuracy

Indicates the degree to which data has attributes that correctly represent the true value of the intended attribute of a concept or event in a specific context of use. [ISO 22989, 3.4.3]
has super-classes
Accuracy c

Data Poisoningc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#DataPoisoning

Attack trying to manipulate the training dataset
has super-classes
Attack c

DataSet-Related Risk Sourcec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#DataSet-RelatedRiskSource

has super-classes
Risk Source c
has sub-classes
Error In Data Collection c, Error In Data Prepration c, Input Data Risk Source c, Testing Data Risk Source c, Training Data Risk Source c, Unavailability Of Data Set c, Validation Data Risk Source c, Wrong Data Set Design Choice c

Datasheetc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Datasheet

has super-classes
Document c

Deathc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Death

Represents death of a person caused by AI.
has super-classes
Wellbeing Impact c

Decisionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Decision

Decision generated by an AI system.
has super-classes
Output c

Decreased Robustnessc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#DecreasedRobustness

Indicates decreased level of system's robustness resulted from materialisation of a risk.
has super-classes
Performance Consequence c

Decreased Securityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#DecreasedSecurity

Indicates decreased level of security of the AI system resulted from materialisation of a risk.
has super-classes
Performance Consequence c

Deep Fake Detectionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#DeepFakeDetection

Dectection of content that is generated using deep fake.
has super-classes
Detection c

Defendantc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Defendant

A person who is being accused of criminal offences.
has super-classes
Natural Person c

Degraded Accuracyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#DegradedAccuracy

Indicates decreased level of system's accuracy resulted from materialisation of a risk.
has super-classes
Performance Consequence c

Design Specificationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#DesignSpecification

has super-classes
Document c

Detecting Non-Authentic Documentsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#DetectingNon-AuthenticDocuments

has super-classes
Detection c

Detectionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Detection

Refers to the use of AI systems to detect an entity, pattern, etc.
has super-classes
Making Decision c
has sub-classes
Deep Fake Detection c, Detecting Non-Authentic Documents c, Emotion Recognition c, Pattern Recognition c

Detection Controlc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#DetectionControl

Represents controls that are applied to detect an event.
has super-classes
Control c
has sub-classes
Bias Detection c

Determine Credit Scorec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#DetermineCreditScore

has super-classes
Assessment c

Determining Access To Educationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#DeterminingAccessToEducation

Refers to the purpose of determining access or assigning natural persons to educational and vocational training institutions.
has super-classes
Assessment For Education c

Discovering Hidden Relationships Related To Crimec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#DiscoveringHiddenRelationshipsRelatedToCrime

has super-classes
Crime Analytics c

Dispacthing Emergency Servicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#DispatchingEmergencyService

Dispatching of emergency first response services, including by firefighters and medical aid.
has super-classes
Planning c

Disruption Of Operation Of Critical Infrastructurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#DisruptionOfOperationOfCriticalInfrastructure

Represents disruption of management and operation of critical infrastructure.
has super-classes
Impact On Facility c

Distortion In Human Behaviourc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#DistortionInHumanBehaviour

Represents adverse impacts of AI on human behaviour.
has super-classes
Wellbeing Impact c

Elimination Controlc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#EliminationControl

Represents controls that applied to prevent an event from happening.
has super-classes
Control c

Emotion Recognitionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#EmotionRecognition

Refers to the detection of the emotional state of a natural person.
has super-classes
Detection c

Employeec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Employee

Persons in work-related contractual relationships.
has super-classes
Natural Person c

Employee Behaviour Monitoringc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#EmployeeBehaviourMonitoring

has super-classes
Employee Monitoring c

Employee Evaluationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#EmployeeEvaluation

has super-classes
Assessment For Recruitment c

Employee Monitoringc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#EmployeeMonitoring

Represents purpose of monitoring and evaluating performance and behavior of employees in workplace.
has super-classes
Monitoring c
has sub-classes
Employee Behaviour Monitoring c, Employee Performance Monitoring c

Employee Performance Monitoringc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#EmployeePerformanceMonitoring

has super-classes
Employee Monitoring c

Environment Of Usec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#EnvironmentOfUse

is in range of
is used in environment op

Environmental Damagec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#EnvironmentalDamage

Represents the deterioration of the environment caused by AI.
has super-classes
Environmental Impact c

Environmental Impactc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#EnvironmentalImpact

Represent impact on the enviroment.
has super-classes
Impact c
has sub-classes
Environmental Damage c

Error In Data Collectionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ErrorInDataCollection

has super-classes
DataSet-Related Risk Source c

Error In Data Preprationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ErrorInDataPrepration

has super-classes
DataSet-Related Risk Source c

Error In Input Datac back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ErrorInInputData

has super-classes
Input Data Risk Source c

Error In Testing Data Setc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ErrorInTestingDataSet

has super-classes
Testing Data Risk Source c

Error In Training Data Setc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ErrorInTrainingDataSet

has super-classes
Training Data Risk Source c

Error In Validation Data Setc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ErrorInValidationDataSet

has super-classes
Validation Data Risk Source c

EU Declaration Of Conformityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#EUDeclarationOfConformity

has super-classes
Document c

Evaluating Behaviour Of Employeec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#EvaluatingBehaviourOfEmployee

has super-classes
Assessment Of Employee c

Evaluating Performance Of Employeec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#EvaluatingPerformanceOfEmployee

has super-classes
Assessment Of Employee c

Evaluating Reliability Of Evidencec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#EvaluatingReliabilityOfEvidence

Refers to the evaluation of the reliability of evidence in the course of investigation or prosecution of criminal offences.
has super-classes
Assessment c

Eventc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Event

Represents occurrence or change of a particular set of circumstances. [Source ISO 31000, 3.5]
has sub-classes
Consequence c, Risk c, Risk Source c
is in domain of
has likelihood op
is in range of
detects event op, eliminates event op, mitigates event op, modifies event op

Execution Environmentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ExecutionEnvironment

Hardware on which the AI system run
is in range of
has execution environment op
has members
dectection of criminal offences ni, investigation of criminal offences ni, prosecution of criminal offences ni, publicly accessible space ni

Expected Lifetimec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ExpectedLifetime

Represents the expected lifetime of a system.
has super-classes
AI System Indicator c

Extent Of Usec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ExtentOfUse

Represents the extent to which an AI system has been used or is likely to be used.
has super-classes
AI System Indicator c
is in domain of
is extent of use of op

Facial Recognitionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#FacialRecognition

Automatic pattern recognition comparing stored images of human faces with the image of an actual face, indicating any matching, if it exists, and any data, if they exist, identifying the person to whom the face belongs [Source: ISO 5127:2017, 3.1.12.09].
has super-classes
AI Application c

Firefighterc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Firefighter

A person who works as a firefighter.
has super-classes
AI User c

Fundamental Rightc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#FundamentalRight

Represents a right, freedom, or principle set out in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights.
has super-classes
Area Of Impact c

Generating Audio Contentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#GeneratingAudioContent

Refers to manipulating or generating audio content.
has super-classes
Generating Content c

Generating Contentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#GeneratingContent

Represents purpose of generating or manipulating content.
has super-classes
Purpose c
has sub-classes
Generating Audio Content c, Generating Image Content c, Generating Video Content c

Generating Image Contentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#GeneratingImageContent

Refers to manipulating or generating image content.
has super-classes
Generating Content c

Generating Video Contentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#GeneratingVideoContent

Refers to manipulating or generating video content.
has super-classes
Generating Content c

Granting Public Assistance Servicesc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#GrantingPublicAssistanceServices

has super-classes
Making Decision c

Groupc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Group

A group of persons such as citizens, marginsalised groups, etc.
has super-classes
AI Subject c

Harmonised Standardc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#HarmonisedStandard

a European standard as defined in Article 2(1)(c) of Regulation (EU) No 1025/2012
has super-classes
Standard c

Healthc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Health

Represents health of a person.
has super-classes
Health And Safety c
has sub-classes
Physical Health c, Psychological Health c

Health And Safetyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#HealthAndSafety

Represents area of health and safety.
has super-classes
Area Of Impact c
has sub-classes
Health c, Human Behaviour c, Safety c

Human Behaviourc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#HumanBehaviour

Represents the way a person acts.
has super-classes
Health And Safety c

Human Oversight Measurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#HumanOversightMeasure

Represents measures for overseening the system by natural persons to detect, prevent or minimise risk.
has super-classes
Semi Automated Control c

Identifying Unkown Patterns Of Crimec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#IdentifyingUnkownPatternsOfCrime

has super-classes
Crime Analytics c

Immigration Eligibility Assessmentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ImmigrationEligibilityAssessment

Examination of applications for asylum, visa and residence permits and associated complaints
has super-classes
Assessment c

Impactc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Impact

Represents outcomes of a consequence on persons, groups, facilities, environment, etc.
has super-classes
Consequence c
has sub-classes
Environmental Impact c, Impact On Facility c, Wellbeing Impact c
is in domain of
has impact on AI subject op, has impact on area op
is in range of
has impact op

Impact On Facilityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ImpactOnFacility

Represents impact of AI on facilities and property.
has super-classes
Impact c
has sub-classes
Disruption Of Operation Of Critical Infrastructure c, Property Damage c

Incompetence Of Human Oversight Actorsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#IncompetenceOfHumanOversightActors

Refers to incompentece of individuals to whom human oversight is assigned.
has super-classes
Organisational Risk Source c

Incompleteness Of Testing Data Setc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#IncompletenessOfTestingDataSet

has super-classes
Testing Data Risk Source c

Incompleteness Of Training Data Setc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#IncompletenessOfTrainingDataSet

has super-classes
Training Data Risk Source c

Incompleteness Of Validation Data Setc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#IncompletenessOfValidationDataSet

has super-classes
Validation Data Risk Source c

Indicatorc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Indicator

has sub-classes
AI System Indicator c, Risk Indicator c, User Indicator c
is in range of
is used to measure op

Individual Risk Assessmentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#IndividualRiskAssessment

Refers to use of AI systems for making individual risk assessments of natural persons in order to assess the risk of a natural person for offending or reoffending or the risk for potential victims of criminal offences.
has super-classes
Assessment c
has sub-classes
Assessing Health Risk c, Assessing Risk For Potential Victims Of Criminal Offences c, Assessing Risk Of Irregular Immigration c, Assessing Risk Of Offending c, Assessing Risk Of Reoffending c, Assessing Security Risk c

Inductive Programmingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#InductiveProgramming

has super-classes
Knowledge Based Approach c

Input Datac back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#InputData

Data for which an AI system calculates a predicted output or inference [Source: ISO/IEC FDIS 22989, 3.2.9].
has super-classes
Data c

Input Data Risk Sourcec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#InputDataRiskSource

has super-classes
DataSet-Related Risk Source c
has sub-classes
Error In Input Data c

Installation Instructionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#InstallationInstruction

has super-classes
Document c

Instruction Of Usec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#InstructionOfUse

has super-classes
Document c

Interruptionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Interruption

Represent a contol used to interrupt the system's operation.
has super-classes
Operational Control c

Intervationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Intervention

Intervention of a system's operation
has super-classes
Operational Control c

Interview Evaluationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#InterviewEvaluation

has super-classes
Assessment For Recruitment c

Irrelevant Testing Datac back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#IrrelevantTestingData

has super-classes
Testing Data Risk Source c

Irrelevant Training Datac back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#IrrelevantTrainingData

has super-classes
Training Data Risk Source c

Irrelevant Validation Datac back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#IrrelevantValidationData

has super-classes
Validation Data Risk Source c

Judicial Authorityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#JudicialAuthority

has super-classes
AI User c

Knowledge Based Approachc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#KnowledgeBasedApproach

Represents knowledge-based approaches, including knowledge representation, , knowledge bases and expert systems.
has super-classes
AI Technique c
has sub-classes
Inductive Programming c, Knowledge Representation c, Symbolic Reasoning c

Knowledge Reasoningc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#KnowledgeReasoning

Represents purpose of capturing knowledge and acquiring new knowledge.
has super-classes
Purpose c
has sub-classes
Applying The Law to Facts c, Legal Interpretation c

Knowledge Representationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#KnowledgeRepresentation

has super-classes
Knowledge Based Approach c

Lack Of Appropriate Instruction For Usec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#LackOfAppropriateInstructionForUse

has super-classes
Organisational Risk Source c

Lack Of Appropriate Level Of Securityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#LackOfAppropriateSecurity

has super-classes
Perfomance Related Risk Source c

Lack Of Human Oversight Measurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#LackOfHumanOversightMeasure

has super-classes
Organisational Risk Source c

Lack Of Transparencyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#LackOfTransparency

has super-classes
Organisational Risk Source c

Law Enforcement Authorityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#LawEnforcementAuthority

has super-classes
AI User c

Legal Interpretationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#LegalInterpretation

Represents purpose of researching and interpreting facts and the law.
has super-classes
Knowledge Reasoning c

Likelihoodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Likelihood

Chance of an event happening. [Source: ISO 31000, 3.7]
has super-classes
Risk Indicator c
is in range of
has likelihood op

Logic Based Approachc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#LogicBasedApproach

Represents Logic-based approaches, including inductive (logic) programming.
has super-classes
AI Technique c

Low Level Of Accuracyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#LowLevelOfAccuracy

Refers to inacurracy of the predictions, recommondations, or decisions produced by the system.
has super-classes
Perfomance Related Risk Source c

Low Level Of Robustnessc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#LowLevelOfRobustness

has super-classes
Perfomance Related Risk Source c

Machine Learning Approachc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#MachineLearningApproach

Represenets machine learning approaches, including supervised, unsupervised and reinforcement learning, using a wide variety of methods including deep learning. [Source: AI Act, Annex I]
has super-classes
AI Technique c
has sub-classes
Reinforcement Learning c, Supervised Learning c, Unsupevised Learning c

Making Decisionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#MakingDecision

Represents purpose of generating decisions.
has super-classes
Purpose c
has sub-classes
Application Examination c, Assessment c, Biometric Categorisation c, Biometric Identification c, Detection c, Granting Public Assistance Services c, Planning c, Profiling c, Reclaiming Public Assisstance Services c, Reducing Public Assisstance Services c, Revoking Public Assisstance Services c

Making Predictionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#MakingPrediction

Represents purpose of predicting something based on the existing information.
has super-classes
Purpose c
has sub-classes
Predicting Recidivism c

Making Promotion Decisionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#MakingPromotionDecision

Refers to making decisions on promotion.
has super-classes
Assessment Of Employee c

Making Termination Decisionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#MakingTerminationDecision

Refers to termination of work-related contractual relationships.
has super-classes
Assessment Of Employee c

Manual Controlc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ManualControl

Represents controls performed by humans without any use of technologies.
has super-classes
Control c
has sub-classes
Approval c
is disjoint with
Automated Control c, Semi Automated Control c

Medical Aidc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#MedicalAid

A person who works as a medical aid.
has super-classes
AI User c

Metricc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Metric

is in domain of
is used to measure op

Migration Related Complaints Examinationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#MigrationRelatedComplaintsExamination

has super-classes
Application Examination c

Misusec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Misuse

The use of an AI system in a way that is not in accordance with its intended purpose.
has super-classes
Risk Source c
has sub-classes
Reasonably Forseeable Misuse c

Mitigation Controlc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#PreventionControl

Control applied to reduce likelihood or severity of the risk, consequence or impact.
has super-classes
Control c
has sub-classes
Overriding The Outcome c, Reversing The Outcome c

Modelc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Model

Physical, mathematical, or otherwise logical representation of a system, entity, phenomenon, process or data [Source: ISO/IEC FDIS 22989, 3.1.23]
has super-classes
AI Component c
has sub-classes
Pre-trianed Model c

Model Evasionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ModelEvasion

has super-classes
Attack c

Model Inversionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ModelInversion

has super-classes
Attack c

Monitoringc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Monitoring

Represents purpose of observing and keeping track of something.
has super-classes
Purpose c
has sub-classes
Employee Monitoring c

Natural Personc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Person

An individual human being.
has super-classes
AI Subject c
has sub-classes
Applicant c, Child c, Defendant c, Employee c, Person Who Has Entered A Territory c, Person Who Intends To Enter Territory c, Student c, Test Participant c

Operation Modec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#OperationMode

is in range of
has mode of operation op
has members
post ni, real time ni

Operational Controlc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#OperationalControl

has super-classes
Control c
has sub-classes
Interruption c, Intervation c

Optimisation Methodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#OptimisationMethod

has super-classes
Statistical Approach c

Organisational Controlc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#OrganisationalControl

has super-classes
Control c
has sub-classes
Providing Instruction Of Use c, Staff Training c

Organisational Risk Sourcec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#OrganisationalRiskSource

has super-classes
Risk Source c
has sub-classes
Incompetence Of Human Oversight Actors c, Lack Of Appropriate Instruction For Use c, Lack Of Human Oversight Measure c, Lack Of Transparency c

Outputc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Output

Indicates output of an AI system.
has sub-classes
Content c, Decision c, Prediction c
is in range of
produces output op

Over Reliancec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#OverReliance

Represents tendency of automatically relying or over-relying on the output produced by an AI system
has super-classes
Wellbeing Impact c

Overriding The Outcomec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#OverridingTheOutcome

Represents overriding outcome of a system.
has super-classes
Mitigation Control c

Partial Controlc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#PartialControl

has super-classes
is in domain of
is part of control op

Pattern Recognitionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#PatternRecognition

Refers to identification of unknown patterns in data.
has super-classes
Detection c
has sub-classes
Crime Analytics c

Perfomance Related Risk Sourcec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#PerformanceRelatedRiskSource

has super-classes
Risk Source c
has sub-classes
Lack Of Appropriate Level Of Security c, Low Level Of Accuracy c, Low Level Of Robustness c

Performancec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Performance

the ability of an AI system to achieve its intended purpose [Source: AI Act, Article 3(18)]
has super-classes
AI System Indicator c
is in domain of
is performance of op

Performance Consequencec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#PerformanceConsequence

Represents consequences related to the performance of the AI System.
has super-classes
Consequence c
has sub-classes
Decreased Robustness c, Decreased Security c, Degraded Accuracy c

Person Who Has Entered A Territoryc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#PersonWhoHasEnteredATerritory

A person who has entered a territory.
has super-classes
Natural Person c

Person Who Intends To Enter Territoryc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#PersonWhoIntendsToEnterATerritory

A person who intends to enter a territory.
has super-classes
Natural Person c

Personality Traits Assessmentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#PersonalityTraitsAssessment

has super-classes
Assessment c

Physical Healthc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#PhysicalHealth

Represents physical health.
has super-classes
Health c

Physical Injuryc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Injury

Represents physical injuries caused by AI.
has super-classes
Wellbeing Impact c

Planningc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Planning

Represents use of AI systems for planning and scheduling.
has super-classes
Making Decision c
has sub-classes
Dispacthing Emergency Service c, Prioritisation Of Emergency Service c, Task Allocation c

Post-market monitoring planc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#PostmarketMonitoringPlan

has super-classes
Document c

Post-market Monitoring Systemc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Post-marketMonitoringSystem

has super-classes
System c
is in range of
has post-market monitoring system op

Post-market Monitoring System Descriptionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#PostmarketMonitoringSystemDescription

has super-classes
Document c

Pre-trianed Modelc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Pre-trainedModel

has super-classes
Model c

Predicting Recidivismc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#PredictingRecidivism

Referes to predicting the occurrence or reoccurrence of an actual or potential criminal offence based on profiling of natural persons or assessing personality traits and characteristics or past criminal behaviour of natural persons or groups.
has super-classes
Making Prediction c

Predictionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Prediction

Primary output of an AI system when provided with input data or information. [Source: ISO/IEC FDIS 22989, 3.1.27]
has super-classes
Output c

Prioritisation Of Emergency Servicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#PrioritisationOfEmergencyService

Establishing priority in the dispatching of emergency first response services, including by firefighters and medical aid.
has super-classes
Planning c

Producing Recommendationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ProducingRecommendation

Represents purpose of producing meaningful recommendations to users of the system.
has super-classes
Purpose c

Profilingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Profiling

Refers to profiling of natural persons in the course of detection, investigation or prosecution of criminal offences.
has super-classes
Making Decision c

Property Damagec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#PropertyDamage

Represents damage of properties caused by AI.
has super-classes
Impact On Facility c

Providing Instruction Of Usec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ProvidingInstructionOfUse

Represents providing information to inform the user of in particular an AI system’s intended purpose and proper use, inclusive of the specific geographical, behavioural or functional setting within which the AI system is intended to be used.
has super-classes
Organisational Control c

Psychological Harmc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#PsychologicalHarm

Represents psychological injuries caused by AI.
has super-classes
Wellbeing Impact c

Psychological Healthc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#PsychologicalHealth

Represents psychological health.
has super-classes
Health c

Public Assistance Eligibility Assessmentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#PublicAssistanceEligibilityAssessment

Evaluation of the eligibility of natural persons for public assistance benefits and services.
has super-classes
Assessment c

Public Authorityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#PublicAuthority

has super-classes
AI User c
has sub-classes
Competent Public Authority c

Purposec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Purpose

Refers to the use for which an AI system is intended by the provider, including the specific context and conditions of use, as specified in the information supplied by the provider in the instructions for use, promotional or sales materials and statements, as well as in the technical documentation. [Source: AI Act, Art 3(12)]
has sub-classes
Generating Content c, Knowledge Reasoning c, Making Decision c, Making Prediction c, Monitoring c, Producing Recommendation c
is in range of
has purpose op

Reasonably Forseeable Misusec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ReasonablyForseeableMisue

Use of an AI system in a way that is not in accordance with its intended purpose, but which may result from reasonably foreseeable human behaviour or interaction with other systems [Source: AI Act, Article 3(13)]
has super-classes
Misuse c

Reclaiming Public Assisstance Servicesc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ReclaimingPublicAssisstanceServices

has super-classes
Making Decision c

Recuritment Test Evaluationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#RecuritmentTestEvaluation

has super-classes
Assessment For Recruitment c

Reducing Public Assisstance Servicesc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ReducingPublicAssisstanceServices

has super-classes
Making Decision c

Reinforcement Learningc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ReinforcementLearning

has super-classes
Machine Learning Approach c

Remote Biometric Identificationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#RemoteBiometricIdentification

Identifying natural persons at a distance through the comparison of a person’s biometric data with the biometric data contained in a reference database.
has super-classes
AI Application c

Representative Of Public Authorityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#RepresentativeOfPublicAuthority

An entity who act on behalf of a public authority.
has super-classes
AI User c

Residence Permit Applicantc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ResidencePermitApplicant

A person who has applied for a residence permit.
has super-classes
Applicant c

Residence Permits Application Examinationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ResidencePermitsApplicationExamination

has super-classes
Application Examination c

Reversibilityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Reversiblity

Specifies the extent to which the outcome produced with an AI system is easily reversible.
has super-classes
AI System Indicator c

Reversing The Outcomec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ReversingTheOutcome

Represents reversing the outcome of a system.
has super-classes
Mitigation Control c

Revoking Public Assisstance Servicesc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#RevokingPublicAssisstanceServices

has super-classes
Making Decision c

Riskc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Risk

Indicates a risk (of harm) associated with an AI system.
has super-classes
Event c
is in domain of
has consequence op
is in range of
has risk op, is risk source for op

Risk Indicatorc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#RiskIndicator

Represents indicators for expressing risk.
has super-classes
Indicator c
has sub-classes
Likelihood c, Severity c

Risk Sourcec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#RiskSource

Indicates an element that has the potential give rise to a risk.
has super-classes
Event c
has sub-classes
Algorithm-Related Risk Source c, Attack c, DataSet-Related Risk Source c, Misuse c, Organisational Risk Source c, Perfomance Related Risk Source c, Serious Incident c, System Related Source c
is in domain of
is risk source for op

Robustnessc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Robustness

Ability of a system to maintain its level of performance under any circumstances. [Source: ISO 22989]
has super-classes
AI System Indicator c

Safetyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Safety

Represents the state of being safe.
has super-classes
Health And Safety c

Search Methodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#SearchMethod

has super-classes
Statistical Approach c

Securityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Security

has super-classes
AI System Indicator c

Semi Automated Controlc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#SemiAutomatedControl

Represnets controls that comprise a combination of automated and manual controls.
has super-classes
Control c
has sub-classes
Human Oversight Measure c
is disjoint with
Manual Control c

Serious Incidentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#SeriousIncident

Any incident that directly or indirectly leads, might have led or might lead to : (a) the death of a person or serious damage to a person’s health, to property or the environment, (b) a serious and irreversible disruption of the management and operation of critical infrastructure [Source: AI Act, Articl3 3(44)]
has super-classes
Risk Source c

Severityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Severity

has super-classes
Risk Indicator c
is in range of
has severity op

Staff Trainingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#StaffTraining

Represents training of staff, users, etc.
has super-classes
Organisational Control c

Stakeholderc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Stakeholder

Represents any individual, group or organization that can affect, be affected by or perceive itself to be affected by a decision or activity [Source: ISO/IEC TR 24028, 3.37]
has sub-classes
AI Developer c, AI Subject c, AI User c
is in range of
has stakeholder op

Standardc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Standard

has super-classes
entity c
has sub-classes
Harmonised Standard c
is in range of
uses standard op

Statistical Approachc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#StatisticalApproach

Represenets statistical approaches, Bayesian estimation, search and optimization methods. [Source: AI Act, Annex I]
has super-classes
AI Technique c
has sub-classes
Bayesian Estimation c, Optimisation Method c, Search Method c

Studentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Student

A person who is studying at a school or a university.
has super-classes
Natural Person c

Student Assessmentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#StudentAssessment

Refers to the purpose of assessing students in educational and vocational training institutions and for assessing participants in tests commonly required for admission to educational institutions.
has super-classes
Assessment For Education c
has sub-classes
Assessing Tests Required For Admission c, Student Assessment In Educational Institutions c

Student Assessment In Educational Institutionsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#StudentAssessmentInEducationalInstitutions

has super-classes
Student Assessment c

Subliminal Techniquec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#SubliminalTechnique

use of subliminal techniques beyond a person’s consciousness in order to materially distort a person’s behaviour in a manner that causes or is likely to cause that person or another person physical or psychological harm
has super-classes
System Related Source c

Supervised Learningc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#SupervisedLearning

has super-classes
Machine Learning Approach c

Symbolic Reasoningc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#SymbolicReasoning

has super-classes
Knowledge Based Approach c

Systemc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#System

has super-classes
entity c
has sub-classes
AI System c, Post-market Monitoring System c

System Architecturec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#SystemArchitecture

has super-classes
Document c

System Related Sourcec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#SystemRelatedSource

has super-classes
Risk Source c
has sub-classes
Subliminal Technique c, Vulnerability c

Task Allocationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#TaskAllocation

Refers to the Assignment of tasks to persons.
has super-classes
Planning c

Technical Controlc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#TechnicalControl

Represents controls that are implemented using a technology.
has super-classes
Control c

Technical Specificationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#TechnicalSpecification

has super-classes
entity c
is in range of
uses technical specification op

Test logc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#TestLog

has super-classes
Document c

Test Participantc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#TestParticipant

A person who is participating in a test.
has super-classes
Natural Person c

Test Reportc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#TestReport

has super-classes
Document c

Testing Datac back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#TestingData

has super-classes
Data c
is in domain of
is used for testing op

Testing Data Risk Sourcec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#TestingDataRiskSource

has super-classes
DataSet-Related Risk Source c
has sub-classes
Biased Testing Data Set c, Error In Testing Data Set c, Incompleteness Of Testing Data Set c, Irrelevant Testing Data c, Unrepresentative Testing Data Set c

Toolc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Tool

A tool that has been used in development of an AI system.
has super-classes
AI Component c

Training Datac back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#TrainingData

Data used to train a machine learning model [ISO/IEC FDIS 22989, 3.3.16]
has super-classes
Data c
is in domain of
is used for training op

Training Data Risk Sourcec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#TrainingDataRiskSource

has super-classes
DataSet-Related Risk Source c
has sub-classes
Biased Training Data Set c, Error In Training Data Set c, Incompleteness Of Training Data Set c, Irrelevant Training Data c, Unrepresentative Training Data Set c

Unavailability Of Data Setc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#UnavailabilityOfDataSet

has super-classes
DataSet-Related Risk Source c

Unrepresentative Testing Data Setc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#UnrepresentativeTestingDataSet

has super-classes
Testing Data Risk Source c

Unrepresentative Training Data Setc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#UnrepresentativeTrainingDataSet

has super-classes
Training Data Risk Source c

Unrepresentative Validation Data Setc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#UnrepresentativeValidationDataSet

has super-classes
Validation Data Risk Source c

Unsupevised Learningc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#UnsupervisedLearning

has super-classes
Machine Learning Approach c

User Indicatorc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#UserIndicator

Represents indicators for expressing attributes of users of AI systems.
has super-classes
Indicator c
has sub-classes
Vulnerable Position c

Validation Datac back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ValidationData

Data used to compare the performance of different candidate models [Source: ISO/IEC FDIS 22989, 3.2.5].
has super-classes
Data c
is in domain of
is used for validating op

Validation Data Risk Sourcec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#ValidationDataRelatedSource

has super-classes
DataSet-Related Risk Source c
has sub-classes
Biased Validation Data Set c, Error In Validation Data Set c, Incompleteness Of Validation Data Set c, Irrelevant Validation Data c, Unrepresentative Validation Data Set c

Verifying Authenticityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#VerifyingAuthenticity

Refers to the verification of the authenticity of documents.
has super-classes
Assessment c
has sub-classes
Verifying Authenticity Of Supporting Document c, Verifying Authenticity Of Travel Document c

Verifying Authenticity Of Supporting Documentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#VerifyingAuthenticityOfSupportingDocument

has super-classes
Verifying Authenticity c

Verifying Authenticity Of Travel Documentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#VerifyingAuthenticityOfTravelDocument

Refers to the verification of the authenticity of travel documents and supporting documentation of natural persons and detection of non-authentic documents by checking their security features.
has super-classes
Verifying Authenticity c

Versionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#Version

is in range of
has version op

Visa Applicantc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#VisaApplicant

A person who has applied for a visa.
has super-classes
Applicant c

Visa Application Examinationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#VisaApplicationExamination

has super-classes
Application Examination c

Vulnerabilityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#vulnerability

Weakness of a system can be exploited by one or more threats. [Source: ISO/IEC TR 24028, 3.48 with modifications]
has super-classes
System Related Source c
is in range of
has vulnerability op

Vulnerable Positionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#VulnerablePosition

Represents whether potentially harmed or adversely impacted persons are in a vulnerable position due to an imbalance of power, knowledge, economic or social circumstances, or age. [Source: AI Act]
has super-classes
User Indicator c
is in range of
is in vulnerable position op

Wellbeing Impactc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#WellbeingImpact

Represents impact of AI on persons' health and wellbeing.
has super-classes
Impact c
has sub-classes
Death c, Distortion In Human Behaviour c, Over Reliance c, Physical Injury c, Psychological Harm c

Wrong Data Set Design Choicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#WrongDataSetDesignChoice

has super-classes
DataSet-Related Risk Source c

Object Properties

affectsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#affects

has domain
AI System c
has range
AI Subject c

detects eventop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#detectsEvent

has super-properties
modifies event op
has domain
Control c
has range
Event c

eliminates eventop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#eliminatesEvent

has super-properties
modifies event op
has domain
Control c
has range
Event c

has AI indicatorop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#hasAIIndicator

has domain
AI System c
has range
AI System Indicator c

has applicationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#hasApplication

has domain
AI System c
has range
AI Application c

has componentop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#hasComponent

Indicates components of an AI system.
has domain
AI System c
has range
AI Component c

has consequenceop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#hasConsequence

has domain
Risk c
has range
Consequence c

has documentationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#hasDocumentation

has domain
AI System c
has range
Document c

has execution environmentop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#hasExecutionEnvironment

has domain
AI System c
has range
Execution Environment c

has expected accuracyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#hasExpectedAccuray

has domain
AI System c
has range
AI System Accuracy c

has impactop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#hasImpact

has domain
Consequence c
has range
Impact c

has impact on AI subjectop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#hasImpactOnAISubject

has domain
Impact c
has range
AI Subject c

has impact on areaop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#hasImpactOnArea

has domain
Impact c
has range
Area Of Impact c

has lifecycle phaseop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#hasLifecyclePhase

has domain
AI System c
has range
AI Lifecycle Phase c

has likelihoodop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#hasLikelihood

Indicates the probability of occurrence of an event.
has domain
Event c
has range
Likelihood c

has mode of operationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#hasModeOfOperation

has domain
AI System c
has range
Operation Mode c

has post-market monitoring systemop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#hasPostmarketMonitoringSystem

has domain
AI System c
has range
Post-market Monitoring System c

has riskop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#hasRisk

has range
Risk c

has severityop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#hasSeverity

has domain
Consequence c or Impact c
has range
Severity c

has stakeholderop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#hasStakeholder

Indicates stakeholders of an AI system
has domain
AI System c
has range
Stakeholder c

has versionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#hasVersion

has domain
AI System c
has range
Version c

has vulnerabilityop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#hasVulnerability

Indicates vulnerabilities of an AI system.
has domain
AI System c
has range
Vulnerability c

has purposeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#hasPurpose

Indicates the intended purpose of an AI system.
has domain
AI System c
has range
Purpose c

is applied within domainop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#isAppliedWithinDomain

Indicates the domain (context) the AI system is intended to be used in.
has domain
AI System c
has range
Domain c

is developed byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#isDevelopedBy

has domain
AI System c
has range
AI Developer c

is expected accuracy ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#isExpectedAccurayOf

has domain
AI System Accuracy c
has range
AI System c

is extent of use ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#isExtentOfUseOf

has domain
Extent Of Use c
has range
AI System c

is followed by controlop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#isFollowedByControl

has domain
Control c
has range
Control c

is in vulnerable positionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#isInVulnerablePosition

has domain
Group c or Natural Person c
has range
Vulnerable Position c

is part of controlop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#isPartOfControl

has domain
Partial Control c
has range
Control c

is performance ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#isPerformanceOf

has domain
Performance c
has range
AI System c

is risk source forop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#isRiskSourceFor

has domain
Risk Source c
has range
Risk c

is technical spec applied inop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#isTechnicalSpecAppliedIn

is used byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#isUsedBy

has domain
AI System c
has range
AI User c

is used for testingop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#isUsedForTesting

has domain
Testing Data c
has range
AI System c

is used for trainingop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#isUsedForTraining

has domain
Training Data c
has range
AI System c

is used for validatingop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#isUsedForValidating

has domain
Validation Data c
has range
AI System c

is used in environmentop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#isUsedInEnvironment

has domain
AI System c
has range
Environment Of Use c

is used in form ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#isUsedInFormOf

has domain
AI System c
has range
AI System Form c

is used to measureop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#isUsedToMeasure

has domain
Metric c
has range
Indicator c

mitigates eventop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#mitigatesEvent

has super-properties
modifies event op
has domain
Control c
has range
Event c

modifies eventop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#modifiesEvent

has sub-properties
detects event op, eliminates event op, mitigates event op
has domain
Control c
has range
Event c

produces outputop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#producesOutput

has domain
AI System c
has range
Output c

uses standardop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#usesStandard

has domain
AI System c
has range
Standard c

uses technical specificationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#usesTechnicalSpecification

has domain
AI System c
has range
Technical Specification c

uses techniqueop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#usesTechnique

Indicates the AI techniques used in an AI system.
has domain
AI System c
has range
AI Technique c

Named Individuals

administration of democratic processesni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#administration_of_democratic_processes

belongs to
Domain c

administration of justiceni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#administration_of_justice

belongs to
Domain c

asylumni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#asylum

belongs to
Domain c

border control managementni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#border_control_management

belongs to
Domain c

dectection of criminal offencesni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#dectection_of_criminal_offences

belongs to
Execution Environment c

developmentni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#development

belongs to
AI Lifecycle Phase c

educationni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#education

belongs to
Domain c

employmentni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#employment

belongs to
Domain c

essential private serviceni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#essential_private_service

belongs to
Domain c

inceptionni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#inception

belongs to
AI Lifecycle Phase c

investigation of criminal offencesni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#investigation_of_criminal_offences

belongs to
Execution Environment c

law enforcementni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#law_enforcement

belongs to
Domain c

management of road trafficni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#management_of_road_traffic

belongs to
Domain c

management of supply of heatingni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#management_of_supply_of_heating

belongs to
Domain c

management of the supply of electricityni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#management_of_the_supply_of_electricity

belongs to
Domain c

management of the supply of gasni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#management_of_the_supply_of_gas

belongs to
Domain c

management of the supply of waterni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#management_of_the_supply_of_water

belongs to
Domain c

migrationni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#migration

belongs to
Domain c

operation of road trafficni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#operation_of_road_traffic

belongs to
Domain c

operation of the supply of electricityni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#operation_of_the_supply_of_electricity

belongs to
Domain c

operation of the supply of gasni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#operation_of_the_supply_of_gas

belongs to
Domain c

operation of the supply of heatingni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#operation_of_the_supply_of_heating

belongs to
Domain c

operation of the supply of waterni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#operation_of_the_supply_of_water

belongs to
Domain c

postni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#post

belongs to
Operation Mode c

post marketni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#post-market

belongs to
AI Lifecycle Phase c

productni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#product

belongs to
AI System Form c

prosecution of criminal offencesni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#prosecution_of_criminal_offences

belongs to
Execution Environment c

public serviceni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#public_service

belongs to
Domain c

publicly accessible spaceni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#publicly_accessible_space

belongs to
Execution Environment c

real timeni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#real-time

belongs to
Operation Mode c

saftey componentni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#saftey_component

belongs to
AI System Form c

self employmentni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#self_employment

belongs to
Domain c

serviceni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#service

belongs to
AI System Form c

softwareni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#software

belongs to
AI System Form c

testingni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#testing

belongs to
AI Lifecycle Phase c

trainingni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#training

belongs to
AI Lifecycle Phase c

validationni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#validation

belongs to
AI Lifecycle Phase c

vocational trainingni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#vocational_training

belongs to
Domain c

workers managementni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/AIRO#workers_management

belongs to
Domain c

Legend back to ToC

c: Classes
op: Object Properties
dp: Data Properties
ni: Named Individuals

References back to ToC

1. Artificial Intelligence Act: Proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and the Council laying down harmonised rules on Artificial Intelligence (Artificial Intelli-gence Act) and amending certain Union legislative acts, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELLAR:e0649735-a372-11eb-9585-01aa75ed71a1, (2021). 2. ISO 31000 Risk management — Guidelines, (2018). 3. ISO/IEC DIS 22989(en) Information technology — Artificial intelligence — Artificial intelligence concepts and terminology, https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso-iec:22989:dis:ed-1:v1:en, (2022) 4. Garijo D. WIDOCO: a wizard for documenting ontologies. In: International Semantic Web Conference. Springer; 2017. p. 94-102.

Acknowledgments back to ToC

This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 813497, as part of the ADAPT SFI Centre for Digital Media Technology is funded by Science Foundation Ireland through the SFI Research Centres Programme and is co-funded under the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through Grant#13/RC/2106_P2. Harshvardhan J. Pandit has received funding under the Irish Research Council Government of Ireland Postdoctoral Fellowship Grant#GOIPD/2020/790.